Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Shinto Exam Preparation Notes free essay sample

Shinto is a local Japanese folklore/religion affected by Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. Kami, a key idea in Shinto’s conviction alludes to the predominant, magical or divine, that saturates the characteristic world. Roots of the universe: Earliest Shinto content is the Kojiki or ‘record of old matters’ written in 712 CE Kojiki recounts to the account of how the infinite request emerged out of confusion during the age of the kami when something like an enormous divine egg split down the middle to frame paradise and earth. The soonest divine beings went to this unconstrained turn of events and they delivered a second era of divinities who were combined with each other as sibling and sister (likewise a couple) the last pair of awesome kin named Izanagi and Izanami were told by their older folks to make the islands of japan. They did this, and the nation they made bargained the entire production of time. The tales and fantasies about creation - The heavenly pair brought forth the hallowed place where there is japan and to all the kami or ‘superior spirits’ that occupy the land. We will compose a custom exposition test on Shinto Exam Preparation Notes or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page They bore the awesome kami of the waterways and rocks and mountains and trees and furthermore brought forth the spirits of the regular powers, for example, wind and fire, etc.. - Eventually the extraordinary mother goddess, Amaterasu, kami of the sun, appears, alongside her wild and obstinate sibling, the god, Susanoo-o-Mikoto, kami of tempests. These two kami of the sun and of the tempests become the vital divinities in ensuing Shinto folklore. Rule convictions - The universe has three levels-plain of paradise: where kami live (hight) the current human domain: the center land (where people live) and at the profundity (underneath) is the world in the afterlife. Progressively advanced Shinto folklore yet in the hearts of the average folks they lean toward the ceaseless nation or ‘tokoyo’ see that the unceasing otherworldly area where the kami live in ideal quietness with the human domain. (everything is on the human/center level) they trust in the center land (never-ending nation or tokoyo). - Fundamental thought in Shinto is that of kami. Kami is the indefinable quality felt in otherworldly real factors. They additionally have faith in the kami of thoughts, for example, creation, development and improvement. Kami is the sensational hallowed nature of things. the consecrated is comprehended through really encountering, yet can't be caught in speculations or words. - They speak with the kami legitimately so they have no requirement for intricate or formal hypotheses. - Shinto is a religion of estimation as opposed to lessons. The best possible finish of Shinto isn't to get a handle on the possibility of kami however to feel its v ast nearness. Customs - Jinja Shinto-happens at hallowed places and is local and nearby (neighborhood sanctums are the place territorial kami are venerated ie. Waterway kami, sea shore kami. This permits nearby networks to certify their fellowship within the sight of their neighborhood kami.. each home has a sanctum called a kamidana at this level Shinto can be viewed as the manner in which a family adores their ancestors[mirror secured by a door]). - Minzoku Shinto-identifies with society religion in japan (what everybody follows) - Koshitsu Shinto-rehearsed at a national level and identifies with the head and his family. (at a national level, altars devoted to the magnificent family[descendants of the gods] assist japan with praising its solidarity as a country).

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Folk Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago Essay Example for Free

People Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago Essay This exploration paper incorporates essential and optional information from interviews with musician who work or have worked explicitly in people music in the Trinidad and Tobago. It tries to examine and archive the explanations behind and the significance of the violin in Caribbean music culture. The paper will likewise try to notarise a few components of people violin instructional method. The report will frame the premise of an electronic blog and will comprise of a proposition, composed meetings, and a general rundown of inquiries questions, pictures, sound chronicles and music scores. Venture Rationale: 1. Social data transmitted through composed word and melodic scores can lose quite a bit of their significance and expectation when perused, as a result of the annoyances of both language and song. For example, when most ethnic melodic styles are documented utilizing the standard started outside of their unique circumstance, they are normally played without their right ‘swing’ or ‘feel’. 2. In November 2011, St. Lucian society musician Joseph Ives Simeon passed on at 87, taking a rich violin teaching method with him. The player has numerous accounts, however a lot of his style passed on with him. This task is the start of this researcher’s (and traditional string player from the Caribbean) endeavor to save the academic data inborn just in the various styles of Caribbean string society playing, for use via Caribbean players. Goals: 1. To sound record the sounds and activities of violin playing in the Caribbean people setting. 2. To record the melodic perspectives and thoughts of current types of Caribbean people violin playing. 3. To characterize the job of the violin in shifting Trinbagonian society conventions 4. To outline the development of the jobs of the instrument in Trinbagonian culture General Interview Questionnaire: * How did you figure out how to play the violin? (How could you figure out how to play the violin in people music?) * What sorts of occasions do you play for? Furthermore, what is the importance of your instrument in that setting? * Do you have any tales about your experience of people violin playing as an onlooker? (presently and before)? * What were the most significant exercises your instructor educated you? * Can you portray your holds for the violin and bow? * Can you depict your bowing style? * Please depict your fingering style. * Do you respect some other players (presently and before)? * Have you at any point played traditionally? How would you feel this style contrasts in the manner it feels OR Is it agreeable to play along these lines for significant stretches of time, or was it perpetually hard to play for longer timeframes? * What are the various kinds of music that you play? Would you be able to play a case of each? What are the distinctions among them? The Violin and the Musical Folk Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago. Presentation 2012 imprints the Centennial Anniversary of the principal ever recording of Calypso music. Engrained in wax (another innovation in 1912), this first account was ‘Mango Vert’, an instrumental organization by George R.L. ‘Lovey’ Baille (a song referred to today as the people tune Mangoes, with included verses by Olive Walke). The snazzy, very much organized, yet vigorously extemporized piece was recorded by Lovey’s String Band, a gathering lead by violins. This paper would like to investigate the violin’s job in Trinbagonian culture from a comprehensive perspective. Aside from the String Bands of days gone by, we will take a gander at the instrument’s job in Tobago’s Tamb’rin music and the Christmas season staple of Parang. At present, in every one of the three regions, it must be stated, the utilization of the instrument is nearly non-existent. My meetings with present day musician who have worked in and encountered our society customs for in any event 50 years, featured similitudes; between altogether different people conventions; and to prior situations that were recently thought to have been lost. The violin is an unfretted bowed string instrument with four metal strings tuned in fifths. It is â€Å"capable of incredible adaptability in range, tone, and dynamics†. The Violin in Calypso The instrumentation utilized in Calypso is normally the exact opposite thing to be examined, if by any stretch of the imagination. This will in general be on the grounds that calypso music is typically observed to be about the verses, the story inside the melody. This is the situation with quite a bit of Trinidad and Tobago’s music. In any case, the narrative of the instrumentation utilized in Calypso, is an account of a quest for an aggregate character in our music. The 1912 chronicles of Lovey’s String band are the first occasion when that the violin’s significance to our music was filed. Lovey’s String Band was a run of the mill case of Calypso groups of the time. The troupe, drove by him on the violin, comprised of another violin, woodwind, clarinet, tiple, piano, two guitars, two cuatros, an upstanding bass (despite the fact that the Figure 1 image of the gathering shows a cello) and a braga. With the rejection and incorporation of a couple of instruments (for example trumpet, saxophone, oboe), this was the general instrumentation of a String Band. These gatherings were supposed on the grounds that stringed instruments were in the larger part, with acoustic culled stringed instruments shaping the center of the sound (guitars, cuatros, tiples, bragas, bandols and so on.). There were numerous other String Bands around at that point, including Belasco’s Band †established by the eminent Lionel Belasco; Cyril Monrose String Orchestra; and Gerald Clarke and his evening people. These gatherings recorded and performed both as independent instrumental gatherings and support backup for Calypsonians. Actually, the sound of early Calypso and what we currently call people music depended intensely on them. Tuning in to the chronicles makes you understand that these groups had been sharpening their sound some time before they were ever recorded. Lovey’s String Band followed Mango Vert seven days after the fact, with accounts of tunes like Trinidad Paseo, Mari-Juana, Sarah and Manuelito (See Figure 2), staples of the Trinidadian move scene at that point. This account of Manuelito is the main case of remote based music chronicled by the United States National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, into that country’s National Recording Registry 2002. Figure 1: Loveys Trinidad Calypso String Band Lovey (George R.L. Baille pioneer, violin), L. Betancourt (second violin), P. Branche (woodwind), W. Edwards (Clarinet), Louis Schnieder (Tiple), E.P. Butcher (Piano), Donald Black, L. Demile (guitars). F.A. Harte, C. Eugen Bernier (cuatros), Patrick Johnson (bass), Cleto Chacha (braga) (http://calypsoforum.wetpaint.com/page/First+Recordings) Figure 2: Loveys Trinidad String Band (Musical gathering) Pilgrim period Calypso? Evidently, the entirety of the chronicles from this instrumental time show a significant level of musicianship and magnificent tonal quality, which especially for violins, is an indication of old style preparing. This underlying instrumentation is likewise clearly like traditional outfit styles where violins, clarinets (and oboes) routinely two part harmony. Figure 1 additionally shows Lovey’s band in military-style or walking band style regalia hardening the thought that the string groups were intensely instilled in the exercises of Trinidad’s provincial past. Aside from Calypso, the groups additionally played an assortment of European affected move styles of music The style and level of impromptu creation in the music likewise feature the conspicuous impact of American little band New Orleans style Ragtime and blues. As found in those two American jazz works of art, Calypso String Band instruments have comparatively set jobs. * Guitars and other culled string and low recurrence bowed string instruments held the foundation cadenced components and harmonies and gave the establishment to every single other instrument. * Violins and reed instruments, contingent upon the inclination of the band chief layered on the song or improvisational ornamentation and melodic breaks (all layers continually being available) * When vocalists were additionally included, the violins will in general be utilized more regularly than reed instruments to help the tune line, with the reeds (and later trumpets) giving the melodic recesses. The chronicles beneath (Figures 3,4 5) show these various employments of the instrumentation with prior accounts (1912 †1930) showing the special utilization of the violin, clarinet or vocal group. Later accounts show propensities toward increasingly organized instrument break lines and trumpet leads and reed instrument leads. They additionally show the acquaintance of the saxophone with the lead line-up (See Figures 6). Figure 3: Recording of Lovey’s String Band, ‘Mango Vert’, 1912 (double tap the symbol beneath to hear the account) Figure 4: Recording of ‘Yaraba Shango’ by (Calypsonian) Tiger and Gerald Clarke and his Orchestra, 1936 (double tap the symbol beneath to hear the account) This chronicle is as yet a couple of years before WWI. Here, the lead ad libbing instruments were clearly the clarinet and oboe, with the violin assuming an auxiliary lead pretending for the most part a similar melodic line as the primary vocal sings and furthermore bolsters the guitars. Both of these specific optional jobs are regular to the entirety of the chronicles where the violin is available. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qA87Wl3dmAfeature=related) Figure 5: Recording of the Congo Bara performed by the Kiskedee Trio (composed by Attila the Hun), 1935 (double tap the symbol underneath to hear the account) This rendition of Atilla the Hun’s (Raymond Quevedo) French patois/English tune depends intensely on the vocal trio to convey the song. To such an extent, that the violin’s backing of the voices, an octave above is nearly missed. Now, the expansion of the marac and piano enhancement the more scanty center instrumentation (potentially a couple of guitars). A quieted trumpet is utilized to give the primary melodic intervals, upheld again by the violin. Strangely nonetheless, the tr

Saturday, August 1, 2020

A new SIPA Financial Aid webpage COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

A new SIPA Financial Aid webpage COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The SIPA Office of Financial Aid is pleased to announce the launch of its new website. From the SIPA homepage, the page is reachable via the “Financial Aid” link, on both the Admissions and Student menus. The site is intended to provide a single location for information about financing options available to SIPA students, including fellowships, student loans, and aid from the federal government; billing and payment; external funding opportunities; and the application processes. It also includes new information specifically for both international students and dual degree students. Why all this information was not in one place before confused us but that was the past.   Now we look to the future.   Please visit the site; we hope you find it helpful and look forward to your feedback, which can be sent to sipa_finaid@columbia.edu.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Problem Of Criminal Behavior - 876 Words

Crime is something that impacts everyone whether directly as a victim or indirectly through societal and economical cost. By understanding the causes of criminal behavior it may be possible to change some of the factors and eliminate some criminal behavior. However, it is not simple, and understanding the behavior of the criminal does not necessarily eliminate criminal behavior. The roots of criminal behavior have been heavily debated. During the eighteenth century social philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham (1748-1833) began to embrace the human behavior was a result of rational thought process. People choose to act when, after weighing the cost and benefits will bring them an increase in pleasure and a reduction of pain. It stands to believe that criminal behavior could be eliminated or controlled if law violators could endure the pain of the punishment exceeding the benefit of the crime. At the beginning of the twentieth century there have been efforts to link physiological factors such as skull size or skin color to criminal behavior. Age is often a large determinate of criminal behavior. Most initial offenders tend to be younger often in their teens or early twenties. Criminal activity then decreases as age increases. Not all crimes fit this pattern however, fraud and other crimes like white collar crimes, that require more thought and planning are often committed by older individuals. When choosing a crime, the individual may not commit the crime theShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Criminal Behavior Among Juveniles980 Words   |  4 Pagestheir family. As this behavior continues and the child becomes more involved with gangs the less likely they will maintain norms imposed upon them by their family and instead engage in criminal behavior (Angenent and de Man 1996:97). Unfortunately, this type of behavior only leads to time spent in juvenile detention. And sadly among the youths, recidivism continues to be a huge problem. One could only wonder what is in place to help decrease the repetition of criminal behavior among juveniles? InRead MoreWhat Determines Criminal Behavior?1387 Words   |  6 Pagesdetermines criminal behavior? Are they born to be a natural born killer, is it in their genes, or is it a learned behavior? There are multiple factors resulting in criminal behavior, from genes to environmental factors. Although it is said and believed that criminal behavior is biologically determined there are even more learned or environmental factors that play a role in criminal behavior. There are four top social risk factors believed for the involvement of crime. Parental behavior plays a largeRead MoreAn Overview of Evolutionary Psychology718 Words   |  3 Pagesin order to solve an adaptive problem, such as: survival and reproduction. Psychological mechanisms mostly operate behind our conscious thinking. Evolved psychological mechanisms produce values and preferences, which performers then pursue within their constraints; they also engender emotions. Evolutionary psychology is important to the study of crime because it provides an understanding to human behavior, including criminal behavior and responses to criminal behavior. Evolutionary psychology alsoRead MoreScience Crime And Deviant And Criminal Behavior1364 Words   |  6 Pagesstudied because of the many factors found in deviant and criminal behavior. Lets first start with understanding what deviance is. Deviance is defined as â€Å"behavior that violates accepted norms and arouses negative social reaction†(pg. 386). Just like the Western societies from long ago, in some of our societies today there are still religious explanations for behavior that violate norms. Back in ancient times people believed that deviant behavior was because of four reasons: â€Å"(1) God was testing theirRead More Conduct Disorder Essay549 Words   |  3 Pagesconduct disorder in children can lead to criminal activity in adulthood. The research that was conducted from this question was that of Memorial University of Newfoundland, the Department of Psychology. Sampson and Laub (1997) discussed conduct disorder as not being a single cause of adult criminal behavior, but instead the start to what they termed as a life of â€Å"cumulative disadvantage†. The conduct disorder might indeed be the initial cause of problems, but may be replaced by the effects of disapprovingRead MoreOrganizational Behavior1387 Words   |  6 PagesOrganizational Behavior Michael J. Bonnie CJA444 June 5, 2014 Eddie Gordon Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior is the study of how employee’s behavior interacts within an agency’s work environment. It includes many subjects which include sociology, communication, psychology, and management. Its primary purpose is to review and report in the ever expanding study in criminal justice organizational behavior areas in the workforce. This discussion focuses on the forces of change andRead MoreFactors Influencing Deviant Or Criminal Behavior932 Words   |  4 PagesIn previous summaries it was discussed that there are numerous theories that attempt to explain criminal behavior including biological, psychological, social, economic etc. These theories share a common understanding that there are factors influencing deviant or criminal behavior that predispose some individuals to aggressive, violent or criminal behavior. While these theories give a convincing argument that crime is caused by biological, psychological, social and economic factors. They tend to focus Read MoreBiological Explanations of Criminal Behavior1430 Words   |  6 PagesBiological Explanations of Criminal Behavior Nature and nurture contribute to the way a person behaves. This can be applied to the behaviors of criminals. According to Fishbein (1990, pg.37), â€Å"behavior [is] primarily attributed to inherited predispositions and genetic influences.† Nurture is the environmental influence that shape human behavior (Fishbein, 1990, pg.37). Human genetics and environmental factors contribute to the uniqueness to a person’s behavior. However, there are underlyingRead More Crime Problems Essay1077 Words   |  5 Pagesrehabilitation for prisoners that will be released. Some argue that criminal behavior is due to environment, others believe that it is genetic, and yet others think that it has to do with personality. If there were certain personality traits that could be identified with potential criminal behavior, steps could be taken to try to reduce or diminish the â€Å"criminal personality†. Although personality is not the only factor in criminal behavior, there does s eem to be a strong association between the both. AlfredRead MoreCriminals Must Be Punished For Breaking The Laws Of The Land1489 Words   |  6 PagesCriminals need to be punished for breaking the laws of the land. However, the space in which we discipline those who do not respect the law is vanishing. So, what will we do with criminals once all our jails exceed their maximum capacity? Those who break the law pose a danger to our society which is why we developed the system of incarceration. Jails have functioned in our society to protect citizens, or those who obey the constitution. For years, our jails were able to separate criminals from obedient

Sunday, May 10, 2020

William Shakespeare s Sonnet 29 - 1399 Words

Although â€Å"during much of his lifetime Shakespeare was better known and more admired as a poet than as a playwright,† (Nelles, Par.1) one can argue that William Shakespeare is one of the most brilliant and fascinating British poets, not only of his time, but also to this day. His work is everlasting and promising. Hence, we are still talking about him and discussing his work in the 21st century. His poems leave the reader inspired and wanting more. The techniques he used for his poems and sonnets are abstract and authoritative, while giving something simple more meaning. Sonnet 29 is one of many of Shakespeare’s sonnets published in 1609, which illustrates a common man’s trouble within himself. This sonnet emphasizes the need for a person to understand that although one will always see the next person doing better than them, it is crucial for one to contain happiness and strength towards one s own goals and aspirations. Sonnet 116 is another of Shakespeareâ €™s sonnets that emphasizes that love is eternal no matter what the circumstances might be. This essay will compare the similarities and differences of the two sonnets and examine what the two sonnets share. Sonnet 29 is intended for the fair youth as most of Shakespeare’s sonnets are. Fair youth is another term for a man. The speaker starts off the sonnet in a pessimistic tone, and with little to not much hope for the future. In the sonnet, the speaker gets a little broad and gives the reader anShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Othello 1386 Words   |  6 Pagesthis inescapable human passion. William Shakespeare’s store of colors is unrivaled. No human failing, foible or foolishness escapes his gentle, comedic reproof. He equally enjoins his audience to venture as bravely as he does into the palpable horror of love gone amiss. In â€Å"OTHELLO,†Ã¢â‚¬Å"MACBETH,† and many more dramas, love’s fatal potential to provoke vengeance or the quest for earthly power is powerfully felt. These are epic investigations of love’s progression. A sonnet, however, is the equivalent ofRead MoreEssay about Shakespeares Sonnet 30 and Tennysons In Memo riam1302 Words   |  6 PagesLoss has been experienced over centuries and many poets have written on the subject. William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 30 and Alfred Lord Tennyson’s In Memoriam are two poems from different eras that express the idea of loss. Both were written after the loss of a close male friend, and both are only one poem from a series of poems. Shakespeare lived in England where he was born in 1564 and died in 1616 and Tennyson also lived in England where he was born in 1809 and died in 1892, the poems being writtenRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 30960 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare s writing about love is exceptionally deep and intensely layered with numerous implications and utilization of rhyme and metaphors. The power of feeling, the profundity of thought, and serious creative energy are all to be found in his sonnets. Shakespeare s Sonnets clarify the value of human relationships by showing that friendship can end one’s own sadness, that love should be commemorated, and that marriage between true minds is loyal and consistent. â€Å"But if the whileRead MoreEssay on Shakespeare Authorship Controversy1504 Words   |  7 PagesShakespeare, the man who wrote 37 plays and more than a hundred sonnets, is known throughout the world. Many people consider him one of the best English playwrights of our time, others say that he was a genius. William Shakspere was born in Stratford-upon Avon in 1564 and died in 1616 at the age of 52. In the mid-19th century, questions had arisen about the Shakespeare authorship controversy, and many scholars wondered whether Shakspere, the man from Stratford, wrote the plays. Ralph W. EmersonRead MoreThe Movement Of The 18th And 17th Century Essay1526 Words   |  7 Pageswill look into the hallmarks of this period; Sonnets and their incredible movement into Europe. The essay will underscore that indeed poets are not solitary, hermetic personalities but are an expression of the communities. The prominent literary work in this period is an array of love traditions that had previously existed as independent practices in many centuries and across multiple nations and languages. William Shakespeare is the author of 154 Sonnets all of which form some of the most romanticRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Elizabethan Era3177 Words   |  13 PagesWilliam Shakespeare, possibly the greatest writer in English language, had different views about the world than most writers. Shakespeare completely disagreed with the Elizabethan society he lived in and with the concept of time. He found his society’s views unproductive and incorrect and he believed that time should not be a part of life, since it causes too much harm. His work showed how he viewed the concept of love and friendship and how someone cannot live his or her life properly without lovingRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 301181 Words   |  5 PagesIn â€Å"Sonnet 30’’, William Shakespeare introduces the audience to a sad state of mind, extreme abstract metaphors ,and the use of very strong mechanical features ,which opens an intake on ageing love for his audience to imagine the memories of love, all regrets ,and pain that soon evaporates. â€Å"Sonnet 30’’ closely repeats â€Å"Sonnet 29’s† theme that the memories of youth are priceless and it also uses the same structure in Shakespeare’s other sonnets. The quatrains focuses on the emotions of pain withRead MoreWhat Brings a Poem to Life?1134 Words   |  5 Pagesall sorts of variations, each with it’s own sound,smell, and taste. The most successful poems masterfully give readers the Ah Ha! experience and invoke in them incomprehensible emotions that render them vulnerable to the poets message. William Shakespeare’ s Sonnet 18 and Sylvia Plath’s Metaphors adequately contain imagery,lineation,and tone to shape the meaning and allow the rest to the readers perception.However, no matter how elegant the poem may be structured the poem is nothing without the readersRead MoreEssay On Elizabeth Barrett Browning955 Words   |  4 Pageswriting poetry at a very young age. She began reading the classic poetry written by William Shakespeare and John Milton. At the age of 12, she wrote her first book of poetry. When Barrett was 14 years old, she suffered a spinal injury while riding her pony. The doctors diagnosed her with a skeletal disorder that would require her to take opium, which she became addicted to for the rest of her life. For all of Barrett s life, doctors didn’t know what was exactly wrong with her, but they later came toRead More A Comparison of Romantic Love in Shakespeares Sonnets As You Like It2069 Words   |  9 PagesShakespeares Sonnets Romantic Love in As You Like It      Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeares comedy As You Like It is clearly a pastoral comedy with a country setting, a theme revolving around love and a story which consists of a series of accidental meetings between characters and a resolution involving transformations of characters and divine intervention.   The comedy involves the traditional literary device of moving urban characters into the country where they have to deal with life in a different manner

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Child Development Theories Free Essays

Child Development Theories A Comparison of Theories: Freud, Adler, and Jung The following paper will obtain information based upon three influential men; Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung. All three with their own theories of being and mental health will be explored. In addition to the basic theories of all three men, a comparison will be conducted based on each individual theory. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Development Theories or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sigmund Freud was a man that believed in the unconscious mind and sexual impulses. Alfred Adler was a man that believed in the individual’s ability to be psycho analyzed as well as social relationships among people. Carl Jung was a man that believed in the individual’s past experiences as well as the individual’s religious beliefs. ‘Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler; these three figures loom large in the history of modern psychology, casting long shadows that have, in the course of one century, forever changed the way we use the first-person pronoun, â€Å"I. † Among these giants, Freud is indisputably the most towering monolith. It was Freud’s pioneering use of the term the â€Å"I† (â€Å"das Ich† in his native German, which was then translated into the Latin â€Å"ego†) that brought â€Å"ego† into common parlance and popular interest to the process of self-consciousness. ’ (Nystul, M. S. 2005) (Enlightenment Magazine 2008) Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and he also believed that religion was of universal importance. Sigmund Freud felt that sexual impulses are the main motivation for men. He also felt that any mental activity was due to the unconscious mind. Alfred Adler was well known for his belief in individual psychology. He believed that motivational influence was due to social behavior and upbringing. This is not an uncommon belief today. The author of this paper happens to believe that it is our experience that makes us who we are. A child that grows up in a rich, non-threatening home is far more likely to have a better adult hood than that of a child that grows up in a poor, full of abuse ridden home. Not saying that someone that grows up poor and abused can make it because they could. Anyone can be anything they want if they put their mind to it. It is just that there would be a better chance of success than that of the opposite upbringing. All three men had their own interpretation. Adler believed in individual psychology. His belief that the human being should be viewed as a whole was a big find. He also believed that human beings accomplish goals because they want to not because anything is forcing them or helping them along. Adler also believed that only we have control over how our lives turn out and what we do with them. All three men were also professional about what they did and how they perceived one another. Each respecting each other, while understanding that their each individual way may not be the exact way everyone is going to view their concepts. â€Å"Individual Psychology breaks through the theory of determinism,† he writes. â€Å"No experience is a cause of success or failure. We do not suffer from the shock of our experiences—the so-called trauma—but we make out of them just what suits our purposes. We are self-determined by the meaning we give to our experiences. Adler’s emphasis on the wholeness of the person and the fact that our values inevitably shape our experience led to his conviction that, in the end, there is only one true meaning to human life: care and love for our fellowmen. ’ (Nystul, M. S. 2005) (Enlightenment Magazine 2008) Carl Jung didn’t think that the individual past of a person was of any importance. He believed that religio n was the main basis for any and all aspects of a human beings life. All three men were captivated by one another and their individual thoughts on the matter at hand. Religion was a big deal to Carl Jung and it is the experience of the author of this paper that religion is of importance to so many today. Religion is of values and beliefs that most everyone has whether they are Christian, Catholic, Buddhist, or any other religion that exists. Tradition shows that most religions have a set of beliefs and values that are followed by each member of that religion. Meeting every week on a certain day- Christians on Wednesdays and Sundays. It is following the values and beliefs provided by the church that Carl Jung believed in so much. If one is to be true to the church that would in fact have an effect on the way that individual would carry him or herself. In conclusion, Freud, Alder, and Jung have three very different outlooks on psychological theories. ‘All three of these remarkable men knew and worked with each other. In their day, these three men were on the cutting edge of the newest science of western civilization. If not for Freud, Alder, and Jung psychology would not have evolved into the field that it is today. ’ Life is full of surprises and one may never know what is going to happen next. Without theories or experiments, the knowledge of psychology would not have evolved into what it is today. Learning is the key to life and there is no such thing as too much knowledge. (Douglas C. 2005) References Enlightenment Magazine (2008) what is â€Å"Dis Ich† retrieved from: http://www. enlightenmentmagazine. com Nystul, M. S. (2005) Introduction to Counseling: an Art and Science Perspective (3rd edition) New York: Pearson Douglas, C. (2005). Current psychotherapies. (7th Edition) (pgs. 96-129) Itasca, Ill. F. E. Peacock How to cite Child Development Theories, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Short War free essay sample

This paper discusses the Persian Gulf War, the reasons behind its inception, military history, and how the war ended rather quickly. This paper presents an in-depth look at the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991. The author presents a detailed history regarding why and how the war began and how it was ended a short time later. War is never pleasant. It involves people dying, lots of money being spent and anger on both sides. Nothing is ever positive when it comes to a war. America stays out of most conflicts unless it sees some nation or entity bullying another one. Then this country steps up to the plate and gets involved. This was the case in the Persian Gulf War. We saw Iraq bullying up to Kuwait , and we decided it was not right. We got involved, Saddam Hussein was angry at us for it and the rest went down in history. We will write a custom essay sample on The Short War or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Persian Gulf War meant many things worldwide and a coalition of 36 nations banded together with the United States to make a statement that would not be forgotten. It worked and the Gulf War was over in a flash.